One-Person-One-Language (OPOL): Raising Bilingual Children

family holding hands

One of the most popular ways to raise a child bilingually is by using the OPOL approach – One Person, One Language. It seems to be one of the easiest ways for children to distinguish between languages, because they become aware that they should speak a different language with different people.

Using our family as an example: I am a native English speaker and my husband is a native Italian speaker. We live in Italy and both speak each other’s language, however not to a native level. We have two children aged two and four years old. We have spoken with our children in our own native languages from the start to give them the best chance of becoming bilingual early on.

OPOL vs MLAH approach with language exposure

MLAH (Minority Language at Home) is another common approach to raising bilingual children. This is where one language is spoken within the home, and the other out in the community. With this approach, both languages seem to have the same amount of exposure.

With the OPOL approach, most of the time one language is lacking in exposure, the minority language. Therefore, it is extremely important that the parent who speaks the minority language sticks to it quite strictly to make it work. It is not always as easy as it sounds.

We live in Italy, the community language is Italian, therefore I am the only exposure to English my children have. It would be quite easy for me to switch to the community language, however I never speak with my children in Italian, only English. It can be quite difficult sometimes in public. There are some people who stare, or ask why I am speaking English with them when we live in an Italian community. I try my best to make my children feel comfortable enough to speak back with me in English, no matter where we are, and who we are with.

Consistency plays a key role in the language learning process

If parents are not consistent using only one language speaking to their child, there is a risk that your child will become confused. Although my husband and I mix languages between ourselves, we speak ONLY our native languages with our children. They learned from very early on, who they should speak with, in which language. They know they are expected to respond to us in the language we speak with them. They are so used to it now in fact, that if I “joke” and say something in Italian, they usually laugh at me and get embarrassed because it doesn’t seem right.

Yes, it can be difficult when having family conversations

Using the OPOL approach means conversations at home can become quite “interesting” at times. With each parent speaking a different language, the children are forced to mix between languages in one conversation.

When we are eating a meal together or playing together as a family at home, there is a mix between Italian and English spoken between us all. The one thing that stays consistent though, is that when addressing my children I only speak English, and my husband only Italian, even if we speak a mix of the languages with each other.

If we are with other Italian family members who do not speak English, I stay consistent speaking with my children in English, even if others cannot understand what I am saying. This is where consistency can become difficult, as some people can feel like they are left out of the conversation. When this is the case, I sometimes translate for them, what I have said to my child.

What about adding a third language?

The OPOL approach can also work when raising your children with three languages, it just means a “third person.” Our children are learning Spanish as a third language. We have a “playmate” named Ana who comes to spend time with them. Before she started, we explained our family situation and she has been following the same approach. She speaks only Spanish with our children, and they are expected to respond in Spanish just as they do with us in English and Italian. It was quite amazing watching them take to it so easily.

Is OPOL the only way to go?

Of course this approach isn’t for every family. Before deciding on an approach to follow with your children, it is best to assess your situation, what languages are spoken, by whom, and to which level. Then work out your family language goal choosing an approach to suit.

If OPOL works for you then that’s great. If not, you can always use it as a good foundation and adapt the approach to suit your family goals.

Good luck!

Chontelle Bonfiglio is an Australian mother of two bilingual children. She is a certified ESL Teacher, Blogger, and Creator of  Bilingual Kidspot, a website for parents raising bilingual or multilingual children.

Help your children build literacy in more than one language with bilingual books for kids available at Language Lizard!

2 thoughts on “One-Person-One-Language (OPOL): Raising Bilingual Children”

  1. This is a great article thanks.

    Currently we are facing a dilemma. My son just turned two years old a week ago. So far we had been using mostly English at home and a bit of our native language. But focus mainly has been on English. It’s because we live in Melbourne and both I and my wife usually communicate in English. So it came naturally to use English with our son. He is now able to recognise Colors and name then in English, can speak 1 to 20 and recognise numbers too. So to say, most of his vocabulary is in English.

    Recently a Friend of mine saw us communicating in English with our son and mentioned why we don’t use our native language. His point was, because my son is going to be raised in an English community and will also go to English school, he will be able to pick it up very easily. But on the other hand , he won’t be able to speak our native language. As per him, it will fade out as we don’t use it that often with him.

    It was a very good point and I started researching about bilingualism and multilingualism. And came to know that children who are multilingual from an early age , their brain develop very well compared to Children who only speak one language.

    I came to know about OPOL ( one parent one language ), also few other methods, and thinking that I and my wife should both follow OPOL method. But I am a bit confused about whether we should start at this age or continue with English as his main language and later try to make him learn our native language.

    How would a toddler behave with this kind of change? Would it get easy with time? Will he pick up our native tongue as easily as he did with English?

    1. Thanks for your feedback on the article. I would recommend introducing the native language early. Toddlers respond well to OPOL and are able to pick up both languages. Also, they are generally receptive to learning both languages when they are young. It may get tougher when they are older. Good luck in your bilingual journey! You may also be interested in this post about why children should learn languages as early as possible:

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